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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice or Microsoft Word document file format.
  • Where available, DOIs for the references have been provided.  The free DOI lookup page is available to locate a DOI.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed at the last pages of the manuscript and places to be inserted is indicated in the text as “Insert Table 1 here”.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • I, and all coauthors, agree that the article, if accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY).

Author Guidelines

Prospective authors should consult these instructions carefully before preparing manuscripts for submission. Authors may find recent articles in Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science to be useful models for the instructions outlined below. Click here to download a manuscript template in Microsoft Word format.


Article Type

We have two article types - Original and Opinion articles. Unpublished manuscripts written in English will be considered for publication.
Original articles: This article type includes original, unpublished manuscripts based on experiments, surveys, models or computer simulations. Manuscripts should be no longer than 2,500 words. This includes cover page, references, acknowledgements and figure/table legends. We recommend authors submit supplemental files in order to meet 2,500 word limit.
Opinion articles: This article type includes original, unpublished reviews or commentaries based on previously published papers in the field of evolutionary behavioral sciences. Manuscripts should be no longer than 2,500 words. This includes a cover page, and figure/table legends but references are excluded from the word counts. We recommend authors submit supplemental files in order to meet 2,500 word limit.


Manuscript must be a single MS Word file containing all graphics, tables and an abstract. The Word file must be submitted through the editorial system at http://lebs.hbesj.org with a cover letter, which contains title, short title, author's name, affiliation, telephone and fax numbers, and electronic mail address of the corresponding author. The cover letter should contain an abstract in a text format as well as word count for the review purpose.

Decision Policy

Quick review process and wide distributions are the most significant features of LEBS. A submitted manuscript must be examined by responsible editor(s) who would decide whether it is acceptable or not. To maintain quick reviewing processes, manuscripts that require major revision should be rejected. Poor presentation and language would also be a justifiable reason for rejection. However, minor revision may be requested in some cases. Upon publication, LEBS will routinely post responsible reviewers' reports with comments accompanying the papers.

Content License

LEBS applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to the articles. This means that authors of articles published in LEBS agree to make their articles legally available for anyone to copy, transform, and redistribute, without permission or fees, for any purpose, even commercially, as long as the authors and original source are properly cited. For further details of the Creative Commons license see here.

Specific Points

Arrange manuscripts in the following order: title, running headline, authors’ names, academic affiliations, author correspondence (e-mail address), abstract, 3-6 key words, text, acknowledgments, references, appendices, and figure legends.

The style of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association must be followed with respect to handling of references, footnotes, tables and figures, and abbreviations and symbols (including hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes).

Tables and Figures

Tables and figures should be placed at the last pages of the manuscript and places to be inserted must be indicated in the text as “Insert Table 1 here”.


For references within the text, give full surnames for papers by one or two authors.  For papers by three or more authors give all the surnames at the first appearance, and in the following reference give only the surname of the first author, followed by 'et al.' for three or more (note that 'et al.' is not underlined).  Cite references in the text as, for example, Hasegawa & Hiraiwa-Hasegawa (1983) or, if in parentheses, as (Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, 1993). Use lower-case letters to distinguish between two papers by the same authors in the same year (e.g. Oda, 2002a,b). List multiple citations in alphabetical order (e.g. Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, 1993; Nakamaru, 2006; Oda, 2001), using a semicolon to separate each reference. Cite references in the reference list in alphabetical, and then chronological, order according to the authors' surname and date.

Type references in the following form.

Darwin, C. (1859). On the origin of species by means of natural selection. London: John Murray.

Article in Journal:

Hasegawa, T., & Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. (1983). Opportunistic and restrictive matings among wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Journal of Ethology, 1, 75-85.

Article in Book:

Oda, R. (2001). Lemur vocal communication and the origin of human language. In T. Matsuzawa (Ed.), Primate origins of human cognition and behavior (pp. 115-134). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.


Authors should quote digital object identifiers (DOIs) - standardized article reference codes - where known, in addition to providing full citations, for instance:

Oda, R., Naganawa, T., Yamauchi, S., Yamagata, N., & Matsumoto-Oda, A. (2009). Altruists are trusted based on non-verbal cues. Biology Letters, 5, 752-754. (doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2009.0332)


For papers in the course of publication, use 'in press' to replace the date and give the journal name in the references. Cite unpublished manuscripts (including those in preparation or submitted), talks and abstracts of talks in the text as 'unpublished data' following a list of all authors' initials and surnames. Do not include these in the reference list.


Electronic supplementary material

Authors should inform us by e-mail beforehand if they are going to upload large-sized files, such as video clips, as supplementary materials.


Author's Proof

The author can view and edit the final form of the manuscript before posting on the public web site.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.